Malnutrition: Risks and Complications

Malnutrition refers to excesses, deficiencies, and imbalances in an individual’s intake of nutrients. It is categorized into two terminologies i.e. overnutrition and undernutrition. Overnutrition is also called as hyperalimentation. It is defined as a form of malnutrition in which the nutrient intake is overloaded. Hyperalimentation tends to cause when the amount of nutrition exceed for development, growth, and metabolism. This may cause vitamin poisoning. It causes overweight and obesity. Under nutrition is defined as insufficient intake of energy and nutrients required to meet individuals need in order to maintain good health.  Undernutrition results in weight loss, fatigue, sunken eyes, hollow cheeks, delayed wound healing, irritability, depression, and anxiety.
The risk of malnutrition arises due to the weight loss of surgeries and is caused because of gastric bypass surgery and also these are indirectly related to non-communicable diseases like heart stroke, cardiac arrest, diabetes and cancer.

Causes of malnutrition are:

  • Geriatric individuals living in poverty, having digestive problems, or a high risk of malnutrition.
  •  People having limited access to food.
  •  People having issues that affect nutrient absorption.



Risks of malnutrition:
  •          Anemia
  •         Osteoporosis due to insufficient vitamins and calcium
  •          Growth and development issues in pediatrics and infants
  •          Fertility issues
  •          Irregular menstrual cycles
  •          A decrease in immune function

Prevention and treatment:

The first and foremost method to overcome this condition is to have a healthy diet food having a rich of nutrients. High intake of fruits, vegetables, ample lean protein. Avoidance of processed food, beverages, and sugars.

Nutrition and diet tips for a healthy women

Women’s day is celebrated for a remarkable contribution of all the strong, brave and courageous women. Women the word itself signifies the power of transform, care, and nurture. So let us take immense pleasure to analyze the nutrient and dietary requirements for healthy women
Nutrition and regular exercise are the cornerstones of optimal energy in women’s health at every age. Women like men should enjoy a variety of healthy foods and dietary supplements, whole grains, fruits, vegetables, healthy fats, fat-free dairy, and lean protein.  Intake of right food boosts up the energy and helps in maintaining a healthy weight in different stages of women’s health.
Healthy eating plans:
·         Daily intake of whole grains such as whole-grain bread, whole-wheat cereal flakes, whole-wheat pasta, brown rice or oats.
·         5 ounce equivalents of protein such as seafood, lean meat, egg, beans, peanuts, and seeds.
·         Regular intake of whole grains such as whole grain bread, whole-wheat pasta, brown rice or oats.
Iron is the key stakeholder for good health and energy levels for women’s health prior to menopause. Food that is rich in iron content is chicken, turkey, fish, pork, spinach, lentils, beans. After the period of pregnancy, i.e. women after bearing child require a high amount of foliate so as to decrease or irradiate the congenital birth defects. Basically, a normal woman requires 400 mcg of foliate, 600 mcg of folate for pregnant or breastfeeding women.
Intake of a variety of foods is recommended to help meet nutrient needs, but a dietary supplement with folic acid also may be necessary. For maintaining healthy bones and teeth women require a variety of calcium foods. It reduces the risk of osteoporosis and also a variety of orthopedic diseases in which bones become weak and breaks easily. An adequate amount of Vitamin D is also necessary, a source of vitamins are fatty fish, salmon, eggs and fortified foods and beverages.

Although growing bodies need plenty of energy in the form of calories, many teenagers and children consume in too many ways. Infants who are obese or overweight are 16 times more likely than healthy weight children to become obese as adults, other findings show. Encouraging girls and young women to be more physically active by reducing high-calorie foods can help balance the energy equation. Beginning at an earlier stage, set a pattern of healthy eating that will carry them through life.
                           

Renal nutrition and Metabolism

The kidney plays an important role in maintaining balance within the body. It is an intrinsic clock regulating and coordinating various functions of organs. Urine formation and excretion are the rhythmic processes carried out by the kidney. Whenever it blocked it has a tremendous effect upon the lipids, amino acids, and other components of the blood in the body and also influences the activity of the drug in the body by the effectiveness of therapy including nutraceuticals and medicinal foods.
The circadian clock in the kidney plays an important role in different metabolic and homeostatic process at the intrarenal systemic levels. Dietary supplements like the ratio of sodium and potassium salt analyze the blood pressure rate and heart rate. Intake of dietary potassium elevates the kidney composed of millions of small tubules that together shifts to fluid area and near to the end of tubes potassium gets secreted to urine. This shift reduces the reabsorption of water and sodium into the body. Thus it is identified that high potassium levels will reduce the amount of sodium and water retention. This pattern will help in regulating the minerals in the body.
The malfunction in renal system may lead to malignancy further will lead to kidney cancer it is otherwise known as renal cell carcinoma. Metabolic proteins present in the nutrition and diet of patients are associated with renal cell carcinoma. Kidney cancer develops a set of malfunctions enzymes get repressed in ccRCC tumor growth in two distinct biochemical pathways are as follows:
·         Conservation of critical molecular cofactor
·         Avoiding toxic accumulation of organic compounds

The enzymes whose activities are depressed are involved in the breakdown of urea; it is a by-product of protein used in a human. Loss of enzymes results in decreasing the ability of the immune system in order to irradiate the growth of tumors. Patients who are affected by kidney disease should be more concerned about their diet plans and quality of life.

                                   

Dietary supplements: A risk for Cancer

Adolescents in most of the developed countries take dietary supplements despite a lack of knowledge about possible harmful effects or drug interactions. Moreover, males turn to dietary supplements in an attempt in order to enhance their performance for sports whereas the females are more concerned with preventing illness and disease. To understand the underlying reasons and sources of recommendation for dietary supplement use among adolescents recognized in both athletes and nonathletes.
Individuals using dietary supplements at least many times a year were more likely to be involved in team sports such as football and basketball than in individual sports. Frequent use of dietary supplements is mostly high in nonathletes and athletes of both genders although available evidence warns against noncritical use the supplements were actually not beneficial for their health. In fact, some people actually get cancer while on vitamins. The advanced effects of beta-carotene supplements, when taken in more than the recommended dosage, show an increased risk for developing both lung cancer and heart disease by 20 %. Folic acid is the one which helps to reduce the number of polyps in a colon, actually increased.
Nutrition and dietary supplements, especially at high doses, are more accurately described as inhabiting a mid-ground between food and drugs. Mostly like drugs, supplement ingredients are biologically active sometimes for better and sometimes for worse. Selenium, Beta-carotene and folic acid is taken up to three times their recommended daily allowance, these supplements are probably harmless. Intake at much higher levels as some supplement manufacturers suggest, these three supplements have now been shown to increase the risk of developing a host of cancers and related diseases.


High intake of any particular nutrient is more likely to be a bad thing than a good thing.

                          

Advanced technologies in revolutionizing diets

Developed Scientific techniques for the genes involved in taste perception  based, food preferences also can lead to personalized nutrition plans effective not only in weight loss but in avoiding diseases such as depression, cancer, and hypertension. The ability to devise diets based on genetic profiles of individuals can lead to significantly better results.
Certain food, nutrition supplements are being able to personalize the health interventions in most of the individuals based on them will help people age in a healthier way and their quality of lifestyle, as well as engender considerable savings for health systems pathways involved in food preferences and its perception and to investigate their implications in protecting against or predisposing to diet-related disorders.
Genes related to liking for certain foods, including artichokes, bacon, coffee, chicory, dark chocolate, blue cheese, ice cream, liver, oil or butter on bread, orange juice, plain yoghurt, white wine and mushrooms.
Moreover, none of the genes thus identified belonged to the category of taste or smell receptors. It in turn represents an important risk factor for the development of diseases
  • ·         Hypertension
  • ·         Obesity
  • ·         Cardiovascular diseases
  • ·         Malnutrition
  • ·         Over weight

Receptor associated along with individual differences in the perception of salt could help us to investigate chemosensory differences can interact to influence and predict food choices and hence human nutritional behaviour. The cellular components of the blood when the body produces too many eosinophils they can cause a variety of eosinophilic disorders. These are disorders involving resulting tissue damage and chronic inflammation often in the gastrointestinal system.

Nutritional intervention could be greatly improved by tailoring it to the food preferences of each person food preferences are the first factor driving food choice, nutrition and ultimately diet-related diseases and as such are the key to understand human nutrition and its relationship with health on a large scale.
                              

Artificial Sweeteners poising a risk for Obesity, Heart Disease and other related health disorders

Artificial sweeteners are associated with long-term weight gain and diseases like increased risk of obesity, diabetes, high blood pressure and heart disease. Consumption of artificial sweeteners, like as aspartame and sucralose, is widespread and increasing. Emerging data solely indicate that or nonnutritive, artificial sweeteners may have negative effects on metabolism, gut bacteria and appetite, although the evidence is conflicting.
The tests and procedures does  not show a consistent effect of artificial sweeteners on weight loss, and the longer observational studies provokes  a link between consumption of artificial sweeteners and increased risks of weight gain and obesity, high blood pressure, diabetes, heart disease and other health issues. Overweight and obesity is associated with a higher risk of cardiovascular disease and it is recommended to lose weight likewise through the physical activity is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular disease regardless of age. The researchers analysed the joint effect of physical activity and BMI (Body Mass Index), Compared to normal weight people with high physical activity level, overweight or obese patients with high levels of physical activity were not at increased risk of cardiovascular disease, but overweight people with low levels of physical activity had 1.33 and 1.35 times higher risk for developing cardiovascular disease, respectively.
Overweight and other health related issues exert harmful effects through adipose tissue which accelerates the atherosclerotic process and increases cardiovascular risk. Moreover physical activity lowers the harmful effects of atherosclerosis by reducing the stabilization of plaques on blood vessels and reducing the heart's oxygen demand. People with high levels of physical activity are protected from the harmful effects of adipose tissue on cardiovascular disease.


As a result widespread and increasing use of artificial sweeteners and the current epidemic of obesity and related diseases, more research are needed to determine the long-term risks and benefits of these products. 


Dietary Supplements and its consequences

A dietary supplement is defined as manufactured product intended to supplement the diet when taken by mouth as a pill, capsule, tablet, or liquid. A supplement provides the nutrients either extracted from food sources or synthetic, individually or in combination, in order to increase the quantity of their consumption. The class of food and nutrient compounds comprises of vitamins, minerals, fiber, fatty acids and amino acids. Dietary supplements may also contain substances that have not been confirmed as being essential to life, but are marketed as having a beneficial biological effect, such as plant pigments or polyphenols.
The research studies claims that 24 products labelled as containing higenamine or the synonyms "norcoclaurine" or "demethylcoclaurine" and found unpredictable and potentially harmful quantities of the stimulant ranging from trace levels to 62 mg per serving. Out of the 24 products tested, only five out of 24 listed a specific quantity of higenamine on the label, and none of those five quantities were accurate. Based on the labelled directions for use, consumers could be exposed to up to 110 mg of higenamine per day. The health risks of higenamine remain poorly understood, but as a beta-2 agonist, it has been prohibited and therefore poses a risk to healthy individuals and competitive athletes' careers posing a critical condition based upon food and nutritional immunology.


Some plants, such as ephedra, contain stimulants. Intake of excess dietary foods containing too much of the stimulants found in ephedra, it can have life-threatening consequences. Dietary supplements leads to an estimated 23,000 emergency department visits each year in the United States, and weight loss and sports supplements contribute to a large portion of emergency department visits. Higenamine is a natural constituent of several traditional botanical remedies, such as aconite root and Aristolochia brasiliensis. While higenamine is considered a legal dietary ingredient when present as a constituent of botanicals research identified concerning levels of the stimulant and wildly inaccurate labelling and dosage information. The research points to the need for independent testing and certification of dietary supplements, additionally dietary supplements must be produced in a manufacturing facility that is inspected twice a year to comply with the U.S. FDA's Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP) requirements.
                            

Malnutrition: Risks and Complications

Malnutrition refers to excesses, deficiencies, and imbalances in an individual’s intake of nutrients. It is categorized into two terminolo...